“I have always believed that opera is a planet where the muses work together, join hands and celebrate all the arts.” -Franco Zeffirelli
Shaoxing opera (or Yueju – simplified Chinese: 越剧; traditional Chinese: 越劇; pinyin: Yuèjù , Yue opera) is a relatively new local Chinese opera popular in the southern regions of the Yangtze River. It originated in Shengxian County (present Shengzhou City), in the Shaoxing region of northeastern Zhejiang Province, which belonged to the Yue State in ancient times, so it was popularly known as Yueju (越劇, Yue opera). Yue opera has a history of about 800 years. It was derived from a kind of story-singing. At first, it was performed with a small drum and hardwood clappers for rhythm and later, choral and orchestral accompaniment was added. It drew some musical elements from Shao opera and subsequently formed its own characteristics.
Yue opera is noted for its lyricism, and singing is dominant in it. Its tunes are sweet and beautiful and the performance vivid and full of local color. Originally Yue opera was only performed by males and then changed to all female performances. After 1949, male and females work together. Notable actors include Yin Guifang, Zhu Shuizhao, Yuan Xuefen, Wang Wenjuan, Xu Yulan, Fan Ruijuan, Fu Quanxiang, Lu Jinhua, Jin Caifeng, Lü Ruiying, Zhang Yunxia, Zhang Guifeng, and Xu Tianhong.
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Chinese opera (Chinese: 戏曲/戲曲; Pinyin: xìqǔ) is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back as far as the third century CE. There are numerous regional branches of Chinese opera, of which the Beijing opera (Jingju) is one of the most notable.
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 Dynastic periods
Canjun opera of the Three Kingdoms period was one of the first Chinese operatic forms. Chinese opera in a more organized form began in the Tang Dynasty with Emperor Xuanzong (712–755), who founded the “Pear Garden” (梨园/梨園; líyuán), the first known opera troupe in China. The troupe mostly performed for the emperors’ personal pleasure. To this day operatic professionals are still referred to as “Disciples of the Pear Garden” (梨园弟子/梨園弟子, líyuán dìzi).
In the Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), forms like the Zaju (雜劇, zájù, variety plays), which acts based on rhyming schemes plus the innovation of having specialized roles like Dan (旦, dàn, female), Sheng (生, shēng, male), Hua (花, huā, painted-face) and Chou (丑, chŏu, clown) were introduced into the opera. Although actors in theatrical performances of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) strictly adhered to speaking in Classical Chinese onstage, during the Yuan Dynasty actors speaking in the vernacular tongue gained precedent on stage.
The dominant form of the Ming (1368–1644) and early Qing dynasties was Kunqu, which originated in the Wu cultural area. It later evolved into a longer form of play called chuanqi, which became one of the 5 melodies that made up Sichuan opera. Currently Chinese operas continue to exist in 368 different forms, the best known being Beijing opera, which assumed its present form in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the latter part of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).
In Beijing opera, traditional Chinese string and percussion instruments provide a strong rhythmic accompaniment to the acting. The acting is based on allusion: gestures, footwork, and other body movements express such actions as riding a horse, rowing a boat, or opening a door. Spoken dialogue is divided into recitative and Beijing colloquial speech, the former employed by serious characters and the latter by young females and clowns. Character roles are strictly defined. Elaborate make-up designs portray which character is acting. The traditional repertoire of Beijing opera includes more than 1,000 works, mostly taken from historical novels about political and military struggles.
 1912 – 1949
In traditional Chinese theater, no plays were performed in vernacular Chinese or without singing. Opera masks of all sorts of colors were used in many Chinese operas. At the turn of the 20th century, Chinese students returning from abroad began to experiment with Western plays. Following the May Fourth Movement of 1919, a number of Western plays were staged in China, and Chinese playwrights began to imitate this form. The most notable of the new-style playwrights was Cao Yu (b. 1910). His major works — Thunderstorm, Sunrise, Wilderness, and Peking Man — written between 1934 and 1940, have been widely read in China.
In the 1930s, theatrical productions performed by traveling Red Army cultural troupes in Communist-controlled areas were consciously used to promote party goals and political philosophy. By the 1940s, theater was well established in the Communist-controlled areas.
 1949 – present
In the early years of the People’s Republic of China, the development of Beijing opera was encouraged; many new operas on historical and modern themes were written, and earlier operas continued to be performed. As a popular art form, opera has usually been the first of the arts to reflect changes in Chinese policy. In the mid-1950s, for example, it was the first to benefit under the Hundred Flowers Campaign, such as the birth of Jilin opera. Similarly, the attack in November 1965 on Beijing deputy mayor Wu Han and his historical play, Hai Rui’s Dismissal from Office, signaled the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. During the Cultural Revolution, most opera troupes were disbanded, performers and scriptwriters were persecuted, and all operas except the eight “model operas” approved by Jiang Qing and her associates were banned. Western-style plays were condemned as “dead drama” and “poisonous weeds” and were not performed. After the fall of the Gang of Four in 1976, Beijing Opera enjoyed a revival and continued to be a very popular form of entertainment both in theaters and on television.
Following the Cultural Revolution, both older and new works reappeared. Revised and banned plays from China and abroad were reinstated in the national repertoire. Many of the new plays strained at the limits of creative freedom were alternately commended and condemned, depending on the political atmosphere. One of the most outspoken of the new breed of playwrights was Sha Yexin. His controversial play “The Imposter” which dealt harshly with the favoritism and perquisites accorded party members, was first produced in 1979. In early 1980 the play was roundly criticized by Secretary General Hu Yaobang – the first public intervention in the arts since the Cultural Revolution. In the campaign against bourgeois liberalism in 1981 and the anti-spiritual pollution campaign in 1983, Sha and his works were again criticized. Through it all Sha continued to write for the stage and to defend himself and his works in the press. In late 1985 Sha Yexin was accepted into the Chinese Communist Party and appointed head of the Shanghai People’s Art Theater, where he continued to produce controversial plays. Since then, he has again fallen into disfavour.
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- Beijing opera
- Hebei bangzi (Hebei)
- Henan opera (Henan)
- Pingju (Hebei)
- Qinqiang/Qin dynasty opera (Shaanxi)
 Opera gallery
Print illustration of zaju plays by Yuan playwrights, a book of the Wanli period (1572–1620).
Fire spitting from Sichuan opera
The informal costume of Huangmei opera
 See also
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- Rossabi, Morris (1988). Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05913-1.
 Further reading
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- Shih, Chung-wen (1976). The Golden Age of Chinese Drama: Yüan Tsa-chu. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-609-06270-6
- Riley, Jo (1997). Chinese Theatre and the Actor in Performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57090-5